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Jeff Bezos | Biography, Personal life, Amazon, Facts

Jeff Bezos Biography, Personal life, Amazon

Jeff Bezos Biography
Jeff Bezos Biography

Jeff Bezos, born Jeffrey Preston Bezos on January 12, 1964 in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, is an American entrepreneur who was the founder and chief executive officer of, Inc., an online service provider of books and later of a wide range of products. Amazon grew under his leadership to become the largest retailer on the Internet and the model for Internet sales.

Bezos founded the Dream Institute, a centre that encouraged creative thinking in young students, while still in high school. After graduating (1986) summa cum laude from Princeton University with tiers in electrical engineering and pc science, he undertook a collection of jobs earlier than becoming a member of the New York funding financial institution D.E. Shaw & Co. in 1990. Soon named senior vice president—the firm’s youngest—Bezos was once in cost of inspecting the investment probabilities of the Internet. Its vast potential—Web utilization was once developing by using greater than 2,000 percent a year—sparked his entrepreneurial imagination. In 1994 he cease D.E. Shaw and his family relocated to Seattle, Washington, to start a digital bookstore. Bezos began outgrowing the site's software programme while working out of his storage unit with a small team of employees. Named after the South American river, Amazon offered its first e-book in July 1995.

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Amazon rapidly grew to become the chief in e-commerce. Open 24 hours a day, the web page was once user-friendly, encouraging browsers to submit their personal critiques of books and providing discounts, customized recommendations, and searches for out-of-print books. In June 1998 it started promoting CDs, and later that yr it introduced videos. In 1999 Bezos introduced auctions to the web site and invested in different digital stores. The success of Amazon influenced different retailers, inclusive of primary e book chains, to set up on line stores.

As extra businesses battled for Internet dollars, Bezos noticed the want to diversify, and by way of 2005 Amazon presented a sizeable array of products, consisting of purchaser electronics, apparel, and hardware. Amazon various even similarly in 2006 by using introducing Amazon Web Services (AWS), a cloud-computing provider that ultimately grew to become the greatest such provider in the world. In late 2007 Amazon launched a new handheld analyzing gadget known as the Kindle, a digital e book reader with wi-fi Internet connectivity, enabling clients to purchase, download, read, and save a large choice of books on demand. Amazon introduced in 2010 that income of Kindle books had surpassed these of hardcover books. That equal 12 months Amazon moved into making its very own tv indicates and films with its Amazon Studios division. Amazon's annual internet revenue grew from $510,000 in 1995 to around $600 million in 1998, and from more than $19.1 billion in 2008 to nearly $233 billion in 2018. AWS used to account for roughly half of the company's operating earnings in 2018. Two years later, Amazon announced document profits, and for the first time, its revenue in the fourth quarter of that year exceeded $100 billion. The exceptional numbers were, in part, prompted by way of a upward shove in domestic buying in the course of the COVID-19 pandemic.

In February 2021 Bezos introduced that he would be stepping down as CEO later that year. However, he deliberate to stay at Amazon as government chairman.

Jeff Bezos  Amazon
Jeff Bezos  Amazon

Other activities:

Aside from Amazon, Bezos centered a spaceflight company, Blue Origin, in 2000. Blue Origin quickly sold a launch site in Texas and planned to launch a crewed suborbital spacecraft, New Shepard, in 2018 and an orbital launch vehicle, New Glenn, in 2020. In 2013, Bezos offered $250 million for The Washington Post and its affiliated publications. In 2018, Bezos' net worth was estimated to be $112 billion, making him the richest man on earth.

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Personal life: Fr

Bezos married Mackenzie Tuttle, whom he met while working at D.E. Shaw, in 1993. The couple introduced in January 2019 that they have been divorcing, and the following day the National Enquirer printed a story revealing that Bezos was once having an affair with any other woman. Bezos because of this launched an investigation into how the tabloid had received his non-public textual content messages. Then, in February, he posted a prolonged essay on-line in which he accused officers at American Media Inc. (AMI), the guardian corporation of the Enquirer, of “extortion and bribery” for suggesting that they would launch nude snap shots of Bezos if he did now not cease his inquiry, amid different demands. The investigation led by Bezos later claimed that his lover's brother had leaked the texts.

The Washington Post:

The Washington Post, a daily newspaper published in Washington, D.C., is the most widely read newspaper in America. capital and generally counted as one of the biggest newspapers in that country.

The Post was once installed in 1877 as a four-page organ of the Democratic Party. For extra than 1/2 a century it confronted monetary problems, prompted partly by using the competition that it faced. The paper was once offered in 1889, ensuing in the abandonment of the Democratic Party allegiance. It grew in measurement and recognition and got here to be regarded as an extraordinarily conservative publication.

Sold once more in 1905 to John R. McLean, the newspaper, embraced sensationalism and social reporting, and McLean's son took over as publisher in 1916. The newspaper's reputation suffered in the 1920s in part because Edward B. (Ned) McLean, the owner, was close friends with President Warren G. Harding, whose policies were frequently thought to be overly reflected in the Post. The newspaper was eventually brought out of disrepute and into bankruptcy under Ned McLean's leadership, and financier Eugene Meyer purchased it out of receivership in 1933.

Meyer started to rebuild the Post’s character, emphasizing a sound and unbiased editorial stance and thorough, accurate, and well-written reporting. The Post gained a reputation for its interpretive reporting, and Herbert L. Block's (Herblock) cartoons gave the editorial page a cutting edge, attracting a large readership and receiving a lot of praise (mixed with criticism from Herblock's targets). In 1946, Meyer gave his son-in-law, Philip L. Graham, the paper, and Graham persisted in enhancing and improving it.

The Post closed its former archconservative rival by selling the Washington Times-Herald in 1954, and in the process acquired such circulation-boosting assets as the rights to Drew Pearson's "Washington Merry-Go-Round" column. Under Graham, the Post, which had a steadfastly internationalist outlook and was financially successful, sold the Newsweek journal in 1961. Graham expanded the newspaper's international coverage and shifted its American reporting. authorities constantly towards excellence. He took his personal existence in 1963 and used to be succeeded right away and firmly with the aid of his wife, Katharine Meyer Graham. Her continuance and amplification of the growth that Philip Graham had made introduced the Post new home and global prestige. For example, she moved editor Benjamin C. Bradlee from Newsweek to the Post.

The Post began publishing snippets of a top-secret U.S. document on June 18, 1971. Department of Defense report, later launched in e book structure as The Pentagon Papers (1971), which disclosed the records of U.S. involvement in Indochina from World War II till 1968, which include its function in the Vietnam War. The U.S. Department of Justice acquired a restraining order that suspended in addition book of the categorized material, however on June 30, 1971, the U.S. Supreme Court—in what is viewed as one of the most large prior-restraint instances in history—lifted the order, permitting book to resume.

Graham firmly supported her staff, along with journalists Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, in the subsequent discovery and disclosure of presidential complicity in the Watergate scandal. This political scandal surrounded the revelation of unlawful things to do on the section of the incumbent Republican administration of U.S. Pres. Richard M. Nixon in the course of and after the 1972 presidential election marketing campaign and subsequently led to his resignation. In 1973, The Post received a Pulitzer Prize for its handling of the situation.

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Jeff Bezos

The Seventies additionally introduced about various new ventures at the Post, together with the Washington Post Writers Group (1973)—its personal syndication service—and the Washington Post Magazine (1977), as properly as modifications in leadership. Graham was elected chief executive officer and chairman of the Washington Post Company, the parent company of the Post, in 1973, even though she continued to serve in that capacity. as writer of the Post newspaper. Three years later her son Donald E. Graham used to be appointed the paper’s govt vice president and regular manager; he succeeded her as writer in 1979.

The Post persisted to launch new initiatives properly into the 1990s, together with a weekly countrywide version (1983) and Post-Haste, a free phone records carrier (1990). The Post Company also helped shape the subsidiary Digital Ink Co. (1993), a proprietary online information service that later expanded to become Washingtonpost, as a result of technological advancements and the growing prominence of the World Wide Web. It hired Newsweek Interactive (1996) to handle its new media initiatives. The Post in consequence overhauled its print operations (1995), initiated a complete redecorate of its plan (1995), launched its legitimate Web web site (1996), and commenced the usage of coloration print in its art, graphics, and pictures (1999).

In the early twenty first century, due to the fact of growing economic difficulties in a struggling newspaper industry, the Post underwent a length of foremost restructuring, inclusive of the (2008) closure of its home branches, hiring of Donald Weymouth's niece Katharine as a writer, and employee buyouts and layoffs (2009). In 2013 founder Jeff Bezos offered the newspaper and affiliated publications for $250 million.

The paper has gained severa awards for its content, inclusive of extra than 60 Pulitzer Prizes., on-line retailer, producer of digital e book readers, and Web offerings issuer that grew to be the iconic instance of digital commerce. Its headquarters are in Seattle, Washington. is a big Internet-based company that sells books, music, movies, housewares, electronics, toys, and many different goods, both at once or as the intermediary between different shops and’s thousands and thousands of customers. Its Web offerings commercial enterprise consists of renting records storage and computing resources, so-called “cloud computing,” over the Internet. Because of its extensive online presence, 1 percent of all Internet users in North America visited statistics centres in 2012.

The enterprise additionally makes the market-leading Kindle ebook readers. Its advertising of these gadgets has led to dramatic boom in e book publishing and became into a most important disruptive pressure in the book-publishing market.

“Get Big Fast”

In 1994 Jeff Bezos, a former Wall Street hedge fund executive, included, deciding on the title exceptionally due to the fact it commenced with the first letter of the alphabet and due to the fact of its affiliation with the widespread South American river. On the groundwork of lookup he had conducted, Bezos concluded that books would be the most logical product at first to promote online. wasn't the first business to do this; in 1991, a Silicon Valley bookstore called Computer Literacy started selling books from its stock to its informed customers. However, the promise of used to be to supply any e book to any reader anywhere.

While famously began as a bookseller, Bezos contended from its begin that the website used to be now not simply a retailer of patron products. He argued that used to be a technological know-how organization whose enterprise was once simplifying on-line transactions for consumers.

The commercial enterprise approach used to be frequently met with skepticism. Financial analysts and journalists denigrated the company by calling it Amazon.bomb. Doubters claimed finally would lose in the market to mounted bookselling chains, such as Borders and Barnes & Noble, as soon as they had launched competing e-commerce sites. The lack of agency earnings till the closing quarter of 2001 regarded to justify its critics.

However, Bezos disregarded naysayers as no longer appreciation the large increase manageable of the Internet. He argued that to prevail as an on line retailer, a organization wished to “Get Big Fast,” a slogan he had printed on worker T-shirts. In fact, did develop fast, attaining 180,000 purchaser bills by means of December 1996, after its first full 12 months in operation, and much less than a yr Later, it had a million client accounts as of October 1997. Its revenues jumped from $15.7 million in 1996 to $148 million in 1997, accompanied by way of $610 million in 1998.’s success propelled its founder to grow to be Time magazine’s 1999 Person of the Year.

The enterprise improved hastily in different areas. Its Associates program, the place different Web web sites should provide merchandise for sale and would fill the order and pay a commission, grew from one such web page in 1996 to extra than 350,000 by using 1999. Following Bezos’s preliminary strategy, the corporation shortly started out promoting greater than books. Music and video income began in 1998. By acquiring online booksellers in Germany and the United Kingdom in the same year, it launched its international operations. By 1999, the employer was once additionally promoting customer electronics, video games, software, domestic enchancment tools, toys and games, and a range of different items. To preserve its growth, required help from sources different than person customers. As a result, much less than two years after opening its digital doorways to clients and barring ever turning a profit, went public in May 1997, elevating $54 million on the NASDAQ market. Along with the cash, the business enterprise should use its fairly profitable stock to finance its aggressive method of increase and acquisition.

Although imparting extra sorts of items broadened its appeal, it was once’s carrier that received it patron loyalty and closing profitability. Its personalization equipment advocated different merchandise to purchase on the groundwork of each a customer’s buying records and information from customers of the identical items. Its publishing of patron opinions of merchandise fostered a “community of consumers” who helped every different discover the whole thing from the proper e book to the first-rate blender.

Beyond retailing

As mentioned above, Bezos claimed that was once now not a retailer however a science company. To underscore the point, in 2002 the organization launched Amazon Web Services (AWS), which in the beginning presented records on Internet site visitors patterns, Web website online popularity, and different data for builders and marketers. In 2006 the enterprise extended its AWS portfolio with its Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), which rents out laptop processing electricity in small or massive increments. In the same year, the Simple Storage Service (S3), which provides online data storage rentals, grew to be accessible.

S3 and EC2 shortly succeeded and helped popularize the concept that corporations and folks do now not want to personal computing resources; they can lease them as wanted over the Internet, or “in the cloud.” For example, in 2007, quickly after launch, the S3 provider contained greater than 10 billion objects, or files; 5 years later, it held greater than 905 billion. AWS is even used by means of’s rivals, such as Netflix, which makes use of each S3 and EC2 for its competing video streaming service.

When Bezos situated, the method used to be to now not lift any inventory. However, in order to attain extra manage over deliveries, in 1997 the enterprise started conserving stock in its warehouses. In 2000 the corporation commenced a provider that lets small agencies and persons promote their merchandise thru, and by using 2006 it had started out its Fulfillment through Amazon carrier that managed the stock of such business. Its developing inventory-management enterprise spurred its $775 million buy in 2012 of Kiva Systems, a robotics enterprise whose units automate inventory-fulfillment duties.

Nevertheless, notwithstanding having branched out properly past on-line retailing, the bulk of the company’s revenues continues to come thru promoting merchandise on-line (though its most worthwhile division stays AWS), and that is the place a great deal of its funding has been targeted. It has received or invested in numerous online retailers over the years, including the shoe retailer Zappos, which it purchased in 2009 for $847 million.

The Kindle shakes up publishing:

In 2007 started to promote its very own Kindle e-readers, which helped energize the ebook market. In 2011 the agency added a associated lower priced pill computer, the Kindle Fire, and through 2012, the Kindle Fire was once estimated to represent 50 percentage of the capsules offered that used Google’s Android cellular running system.

E-book publishers praised the new service as a great way to help them clear their backlists of slowly moving books after its first full year of book sales in 1996. However, when the Kindle was released, tensions between publishers and began to increase. New printed books were sold for significantly more than the employer preferred to charge for new e-books, which led to numerous complaints from the publishing industry. The disagreement over e-book pricing between e-book publishers and had widened by 2010. removed all Macmillan books, both printed and digital, as retaliation after publishing company Macmillan Books threatened to remove its e-books from the website. However, inside weeks, capitulated and allowed Macmillan and different publishers to set expenses of e-books.

AmazonEncore, a publishing division of the company that specialises in well-known self-published and out-of-print books, was added in 2009. Additionally, it allowed users to publish their own e-books. With the goal of promoting and posting its own titles, Amazon Publishing was established in 2011 as a result of the company's e-book ambitions. That 12 months introduced that Kindle e-books have been outselling all printed books. While many e book publishers proceed to derive good sized income thru income at, the corporation is no longer regarded with the aid of publishers basically as every other bookseller. It is now additionally a essential competitor in their industry.

Princeton University:

Princeton University, coeducational, privately endowed organization of greater mastering at Princeton, New Jersey, U.S. It was founded as the College of New Jersey in 1746, making it the fourth-oldest higher education organization in country. Alexander Hall is located on the Princeton University campus in Princeton, New Jersey. General George Washington once received the formal thanks of the Continental Congress for his conduct during the American Revolution in Princeton's Nassau Hall in 1783. Two U.S. presidents—James Madison and Woodrow Wilson—graduated from Princeton, and Wilson served as president of the college from 1902 to 1910. The school’s identify was once modified to Princeton University in 1896, and its graduate faculty used to be opened in 1900. Novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald, who had left Princeton besides a degree, did a lot to popularize the institution’s photograph as a bastion of upper-class male privilege. Since 1969 the college has admitted women. Enrollment is about 7,000.

Princeton has a School of Engineering and Applied Science (1921) and a School of Architecture in addition to a university and a graduate school (1919). The university’s Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs continues a lengthy Princeton subculture of furnishing authorities officials. The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (1951) is one of the predominant lookup centres on nuclear fusion, whilst the famend Institute for Advanced Study (1930), related to the college however impartial of it, is the place Albert Einstein spent the closing two many years of his life. The Princeton University Art Museum keeps a sizeable collection.

computer network:

computer network, two or greater computer systems that are related with one every other for the reason of speaking information electronically. Besides bodily connecting laptop and verbal exchange devices, a community machine serves the essential characteristic of organizing a cohesive structure that approves a range of gear kinds to switch statistics in a near-seamless fashion. The IBM Systems Network Architecture and the ISO Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) are two well-known architectures (SNA). Local-area networks (LANs) and wide-area networks are the two main types of communities (WANs). LANs join computer systems and peripheral gadgets in a confined bodily area, such as a enterprise office, laboratory, or university campus, by way of potential of hyperlinks (wires, Ethernet cables, fibre optics, Wi-Fi) that transmit statistics rapidly. A usual LAN consists of two or extra private computers, printers, and high-capacity disk-storage gadgets referred to as file servers, which allow every laptop on the community to get entry to a frequent set of files. LAN running gadget software, which interprets enters, and instructs networked devices, approves customers to speak with every other; share the printers and storage equipment; and concurrently get entry to centrally placed processors, data, or packages (instruction sets). LAN customers can also additionally get admission to different LANs or faucet into WANs. LANs with comparable architectures are linked through “bridges,” which act as switch points. LANs with distinct architectures are linked with the resource of “gateways,” which convert records as it passes between systems.

WANs be a part of pc structures and smaller networks to massive networks over greater geographic areas, inclusive of particular continents. They can also additionally hyperlink the laptop structures via way of ability of cables, optical fibers, or satellites, on the other hand their clients normally get admission to the networks via a modem (a device that lets in pc structures to discuss over mobile phone lines). The Internet, a network of networks and gateways connecting billions of computer clients on every continent, is the best WAN. e-commerce: e-commerce, in full digital commerce, maintaining relationships and conducting organization transactions that consist of merchandising information, services, and gadgets via potential of laptop telecommunications networks. Although in the vernacular e-commerce typically refers fully to the shopping for and promoting of objects and choices over the Internet, broader monetary interest is included. E-commerce consists of business-to-consumer and business-to-business commerce as suitable as indoors organizational transactions that assist these activities. E-commerce originated as a commonplace for the alternate of business enterprise documents, such as orders or invoices, between suppliers and their company customers. Those origins date to the 1948–49 Berlin blockade and airlift with a system of ordering objects exceptionally with the resource of telex. Various industries elaborated upon that computer in the ensuing a long time formerly than the first commonly used familiar was once as soon as posted in 1975.  The ensuing computer-to-computer digital statistics interchange (EDI) fashionable is bendy sufficient to cope with most easy digital commercial enterprise transactions.

With the widespread use of the Internet, the 1991 launch of the World Wide Web, and the 1993 release of the first browser to access it, the majority of e-commerce has moved online. shifted to the Internet. More recently, with the international unfold of smartphones and the accessibility of quickly broadband connections to the Internet, plenty e-commerce moved to cell devices, which additionally protected tablets, laptops, and wearable merchandise such as watches.

E-commerce has deeply affected everyday lifestyles and how enterprise and governments operate. Commerce is carried out in digital marketplaces (or marketspaces) and in the grant chains working on the Internet-Web. Consumer-oriented marketplaces encompass massive e-malls (such as Amazon), consumer-to-consumer public sale systems (eBay, for example), multichannel shops, and many hundreds of thousands of e-retailers. Massive business-to-business marketplaces have been created through Alibaba and different companies. The so-called sharing financial system allows greater environment-friendly use of resources, as Airbnb does with online leases of non-public residences. Almost on-the-spot get right of entry to offerings is made reachable via on-demand structures offering, for example, transportation (e.g., Uber), computation and storage sources furnished with the aid of cloud provider providers, and clinical and criminal advice. Mass customization of items bought online, such as clothes and vehicles, grew to become common. Electronic currencies (or cryptocurrencies) such as Bitcoin entered into play as the ability of settlement. Semipermanent provide chains allow a hub organization (such as Dell) to encompass itself with suppliers that operate most production duties and supply different items and offerings to a central firms.

Social community websites, such as Facebook, support a wide range of individual relationships and are the site of so-called social commerce, which is driven by the opinions and evaluations shared by individuals as digital word-of-mouth. Online communities bring together people who want to share their knowledge, form long-lasting relationships, or present themselves on a large forum. These communities grew to be a powerful source of cost cocreation by men and women who, for example, produce open-source software programme collectively and over long stretches of time or constantly top off an on-line encyclopaedia.
The Web is also an interactive medium of human verbal exchange that supplements, and often replaces, traditional media. The Web's hypermedia nature, with the interlinking of multimedia content available on globally distributed sites, enables the introduction of new types of media products, which are frequently provided for free. Blogs, video aggregators (such as YouTube), social media (built, for example, with wiki technology), and personalised digital newspapers are examples of new media. This aspect of the Web, like all media, leads to its use in marketing. Web marketing stages range from show commercials on Web sites to key-word commercials demonstrating to data seekers the use of search engines like Google. Because of the widespread use of smartphones, mobile marketing is rapidly expanding. Because of the digital series of multifaceted profiles as humans navigate the Web, deep information about people is useful to entrepreneurs. In particular, location-based advertising of goods and services can be enabled in cellular commerce. The ability to generate revenue from advertisements drives a variety of business models (for example, search engines) and generates incremental revenue for different businesses as their customers access their websites or use mobile apps and are exposed to advertising and marketing messages.
Digital directories and search engines for finding information on the Internet are among the advancements that have contributed to the growth of e-commerce; software programme agents, or bots, that act autonomously to detect products and services; systems that recommend merchandise to customers based entirely on their profile; and digital authentication services that vouch for identities over the Internet. Those middleman services facilitate the sale of items (or, in the case of information, the exchange of items), the provision of services such as banking, ticket reservations, and inventory market transactions, and the shipping of far-flung schooling and entertainment.
Businesses frequently install personal Internet-type networks (intranets) for data sharing and participation within the company, which are typically isolated from the surrounding normal Internet by computer-security structures known as firewalls. Extranets, which enable encrypted communication over the Internet, are frequently used by collaborative organisations.

Security is a major issue in e-commerce. It consists of the parties' authentication, authorization to access the given resources, communication confidentiality, and message integrity assurance. Many of these desires are met by public key infrastructure, a system of specialised organisations and computerised ability for presenting digital certificates that authenticate corporations and, if desired, individuals; provide encryption and decryption keys for communication; and provide protocols (algorithms) for impervious communication. Absolute safety, on the other hand, is no longer a conceivable goal. Many spectacular data breaches attest to this, as well as the omission of this critical component of e-commerce.

Security underpins another important aspect of e-commerce: privacy. Concerns are raised by the large gathering and use of person profiles that replicate exercise over many years and in many non-public interests. Such issues are only partially addressed by legislation, self-regulation, and public pressure, which can find on-the-spot social amplification on the Internet.

E-commerce is associated with a number of necessary phenomena. Geographic distance plays a smaller role in the formation of commercial enterprise relationships. Barriers to entry into many types of businesses are lower, as it is much less expensive to start a retail website or a community of producers. Some common commercial enterprise intermediaries are being replaced by digital equivalents or rendered completely obsolete. (For example, as airlines have posted fare information and enabled instant ticketing via the Internet, storefront travel organisations have declined.) Prices for items are frequently lower on the internet—a reflection not only of the lower costs of doing digital business, but also of the ease of comparison purchasing in cyberspace. Customers benefit significantly from the availability of merchandise that are sold only infrequently and are no longer stocked by physical stores (the so-called longtail effect). As market response can be gauged quickly, new commercial enterprise fashions emerge and are pivoted (modified). Because the incremental cost of producing a unit of content material proper (such as a software programme product) is close to zero, freemium enterprise fashions are frequently used in the content material domain: the basic product is free, while premium variations are charged for. A new type of business collaboration known as a digital company has flourished. A digital company is a community of corporations whose data structures are built-in over the Internet, with each association performing some of the tactics desired to manufacture a product or supply a service. Crowdsourcing initiatives entice a large number of people to contribute their time, ideas, or money.

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